Belgian philosopher, lecturer and columnist Tinneke Beeckman (b. 1976) studied moral sciences and philosophy at the Vrije Universiteit in Brussels and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. In 2003 she gained her doctorate with a thesis about Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche. She has published works on figures including Freud, Nietzsche and Heidegger, and above all on Spinoza, with the acclaimed ‘Door Spinoza’s lens’ (Through Spinoza’s Lens, 2012), and ‘Macht en onmacht. Een verkenning van de hedendaagse aanslag op de Verlichting’ (Power and Powerlessness. An exploration of the contemporary attack on the Enlightenment, 2015). She is a columnist and political commentator for De Standaard, De Tijd, De Morgen and NRC Handelsblad, and the writer of a series on philosophical questions for Knack Magazine.